Gustav Bauernfeind (1848-1904), detail of Warden of the Mosque, Damascus, 1891. 43 x 33  in (109.2 x 83.8  cm). Estimate £1,500,000-2,500,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at

Collecting guide: Orientalist Art

We talk to Arne Everwijn, Director of 19th Century European Art at Christie’s, for an expert overview of an increasingly popular genre of painting filled with exotic visions of markets, mosques and harems by adventurous European artists

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  • What is Orientalism?

In short, visions of the East by artists of the West. European painters of the 19th century — from England, France and Germany especially — visited the areas we now know as the Near East, Middle East and North Africa, and depicted what they saw in wide-eyed admiration. Their paintings and works on paper tapped into a growing fascination with travel and far-off, exotic lands, which had previously been beyond the comprehension of the average Londoner or Parisian.

Gustav Bauernfeind (1848-1904), Forecourt of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, 1890. Oil on panel. 47¼ x 36¼  in (120.8 x 92.2  cm). Sold for £3,611,250 on 29 April 2019 at Christie’s in London

Gustav Bauernfeind (1848-1904), Forecourt of the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, 1890. Oil on panel. 47¼ x 36¼ in (120.8 x 92.2 cm). Sold for £3,611,250 on 29 April 2019 at Christie’s in London

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  • Who were the first Orientalists and what did they depict?

The start of Orientalism coincided with the Romantic age, and its biggest star was Eugène Delacroix. In works such as Massacre at Chios (1824), The Death of Sardanapalus (1827) and The Convulsionists of Tangier (1837-38), he depicted the East as a place of unbridled sensuality, wilful violence and extreme emotions.

Over time, however, visions became much less tumultuous and much more beguiling. Genre scenes became the norm, reflecting everyday life in these faraway lands. Subjects — usually looking relaxed and content — included rug merchants, men at prayer, hookah smokers, chess players and traders in a bustling market.

Alexander Roubtzoff (1884-1949), The Souk, Tunis, 1915. Oil on canvas. 44¾ x 62?  in (114 x 158.2  cm). Estimate £300,000-500,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

Alexander Roubtzoff (1884-1949), The Souk, Tunis, 1915. Oil on canvas. 44¾ x 62? in (114 x 158.2 cm). Estimate: £300,000-500,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

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  • Who are considered the important names of Orientalism?

Eugène Delacroix, Jean-Léon Gérôme, John Frederick Lewis, Gustav Bauernfeind and Ludwig Deutsch are the names that appear at the top of any serious collector’s wish list.

John Frederick Lewis (1805-1876), The Bezestein Bazaar of El Khan Khalil, Cairo, 1872. Oil on canvas. 45½ x 34¾  in (115.6 x 88.3  cm). Estimate £3,000,000-5,000,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

John Frederick Lewis (1805-1876), The Bezestein Bazaar of El Khan Khalil, Cairo, 1872. Oil on canvas. 45½ x 34¾ in (115.6 x 88.3 cm). Estimate: £3,000,000-5,000,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

According to Arne Everwijn, Director of 19th Century European Art at Christie’s, Franco-Austrian painter Rudolf Ernst is ‘certainly right up there’. Ernst, he says, ‘was the master of verisimilitude. His paintings are so lifelike that patrons felt they could step right into them and be in the Middle East.

Rudolf Ernst (1854-1932), In the Mosque. Oil on panel. 23¼ x 28¾  in (59 x 73  cm). Sold for £488,750 on 12 July 2018 at Christie’s in London

Rudolf Ernst (1854-1932), In the Mosque. Oil on panel. 23¼ x 28¾ in (59 x 73 cm). Sold for £488,750 on 12 July 2018 at Christie’s in London

‘His concern was never ethnographic accuracy — this was a man who freely juxtaposed objects from different cultures [such as the Syrian lamp, Ottoman sash and Hispano-Moresque architecture in In the Mosque, above]. His aim, instead, was to dazzle viewers with pictures that had an almost tactile quality, so polished were his painted surfaces.

‘Then there is also Ludwig Deutsch, below, a quite supreme colourist,’ continues Everwijn. ‘His colours are so bold — they jump out at you and give a real sense of the richness of Eastern lands.’

Ludwig Deutsch (1855-1935), At Prayer, 1923. Oil on panel. 22 x 17? in (55.9 x 44.1 cm). Sold for £605,000 on 13 July 2017 at Christie’s in London

Ludwig Deutsch (1855-1935), At Prayer, 1923. Oil on panel. 22 x 17? in (55.9 x 44.1 cm). Sold for £605,000 on 13 July 2017 at Christie’s in London

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  • Were there differences between the Orientalists from different countries?

Very broadly speaking, British artists tended to stick to the reality of what they saw before them. David Roberts (whose Jerusalem, from the South, below, was sold at Christie’s in June 2016) is a good example: his paintings of people at historical sites are characterised by their topographical precision.

David Roberts (1796-1864), Jerusalem, from the South, 1860. Oil on canvas. 48½ x 72¼ in (123.2 x 183.5 cm). Sold for £962,500 on 30 June 2016 at Christie’s in London

David Roberts (1796-1864), Jerusalem, from the South, 1860. Oil on canvas. 48½ x 72¼ in (123.2 x 183.5 cm). Sold for £962,500 on 30 June 2016 at Christie’s in London

French painters, by contrast, tended to indulge their exotic fantasies more. The harem was common subject matter, even though males weren’t allowed to enter one, and so the artists could never have witnessed such scenes at first hand.

Henri Adrien Tanoux (1865-1923), In the Harem, 1898. Oil on canvas. 24? x 18? in (61.2 x 46.6 cm). Sold for £17,500 on 13 July 2017 at Christie’s in London

Henri Adrien Tanoux (1865-1923), In the Harem, 1898. Oil on canvas. 24? x 18? in (61.2 x 46.6 cm). Sold for £17,500 on 13 July 2017 at Christie’s in London

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  • Where were these canvases painted?

Orientalists tended to paint their canvases in their studios at home, working from photographs and/or sketches that they had made while on their travels.

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904), An Arnaut Smoking, c.1880-82. Oil on canvas. 23? x 28?  in (60 x 73.3  cm). Estimate £1,200,000-1,800,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904), An Arnaut Smoking, c.1880-82. Oil on canvas. 23? x 28? in (60 x 73.3 cm). Estimate: £1,200,000-1,800,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

‘The likes of Ernst and Gérôme also returned to Europe with a host of exotic objects,’ says Everwijn. ‘These ranged from costumes and rifles to carpets, pipes and tiles. Their studios were piled high with these objects, which served as useful props which they deployed in their paintings.’

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  • Did Orientalist taste extend beyond painting?

The alluring exoticism of the East certainly became fashionable among Europe’s elite in the late 19th century, feeding into furniture, textiles, the decorative arts and even architecture. In Britain this taste was perhaps best exemplified in the Arab Hall in the London home of artist Frederic Leighton (now Leighton House Museum).

Gustav Bauernfeind (1848-1904), Warden of the Mosque, Damascus, 1891. Oil on panel. 43 x 33  in (109.2 x 83.8  cm). Estimate £1,500,000-2,500,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

Gustav Bauernfeind (1848-1904), Warden of the Mosque, Damascus, 1891. Oil on panel. 43 x 33 in (109.2 x 83.8 cm). Estimate: £1,500,000-2,500,000. Offered in Orientalist Art on 18 November 2020 at Christie’s in London

  • 7
  • What is the market like for Orientalism today?

‘For much of the 20th century, there wasn’t huge demand, but now it’s strong,’ says Everwijn. ‘Christie’s became the first auction house to establish an Orientalist sale in 1998. In recent times, it has been collectors from the Middle East who have been buying these paintings — as quasi-historical documents. They are interested in acquiring a piece of their homeland’s past.’ The Islamic edict against figurative imagery meant that local artists didn’t produce equivalent scenes.

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